Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Born December 25 1642 (4 January 1643 on the Gregorian calendar,
then not yet adopted in England), in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire.
Already showing signs of an exceptional intellect ---and solitary
personality--- in grammar school, he was admitted in June 1661
to Trinity College, Cambridge, an old and prestigious institution,
but somewhat in decline at the time.
Although the curriculum in Trinity then
focused primarily on classical Aristotelian philosophy, on his own initiative
Newton became acquainted with the Descartes' writings, which introduced him
to mechanistic philosophy.
Between 1664 and 1666, Newton lay the groundwork of his theory of
infinitesimal calculus, binomial expansion, laws of motion,
theory of color, and theory of universal gravitation.
He did so largely in isolation, and despite having to return
to Woolsthorpe for nearly a year
in the summer 1665 following the closure of Cambridge
due to an outbreak of the plague. It is during these few years
that nearly all of Newton's lifetime scientific achievements took shape.
In October 1669 he was named Lucasian professor of mathematics,
but in fact lectured very little in subsequent years. Shortly thereafter
he designed and constructed the first reflecting telescope, which caused
a sensation and led to his election to the Royal Society in January 1672.
Newton's masterpiece, his 1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia
Mathematica (usually refered to simply
as Principia), was composed between 1684 and 1686 and
seen through publication by Edmond Halley, of cometary fame.
Newton's key insight of 1666, namely that the same force of gravity felt
on Earth also held the planets in their orbits around the Sun, was developed
in detail therein, providing a theoretical framework for
the Laws of planetary motion formulated empirically
as well as a host of other phenomena, including the orbital paths
of comets. Revised editions of the book appeared in 1713 and 1726.
Newton made numerous discoveries in the field of optics,
especially with respect to light and colors. His
groundbreaking studies of the dispersion of light by
glass prisms were begun as early as 1665, first expounded
in a short essay
entitled New Theory about Light and Colors published in 1672,
and described in full length only much later
in his 1704 Opticks.
Newton's obsessive reluctance
to publish his ideas or to entertain correspondence
with other prominent European scientists was the chief cause of
various priority disputes, the most strident and long lasting of which
with his countryman Robert Hooke (1635-1703) over various matter of optics and
gravitation, and with
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) over the discovery of differential calculus.
From 1693 onward, Newton became increasingly involved in administrative
and political affairs.
In 1696 he became warden (and later master) of the Mint,
a secure administrative position which provided him with a steady
He was knighted in 1705 and presided over the Royal Society from 1703
to the end of his life.
He died in Kensington on 20 March 1727, and was buried in Westminster Abbey
after a state funeral.
Newton, I. 1687, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, trans.
and ed. F. Cajori 1934, University of California Press.
Hall, A.R. 1963, From Galileo to Newton 1630-1720, Harper & Row
[1981 Dover reprint], chapters 10 and 11.
Hall, A.R. 1992, Isaac Newton. Adventurer in Thought,
Cambridge University Press.
Westfall, R. 1993, The Life of Isaac Newton,
Cambridge University Press.